Acute and chronic neurological disorders in COVID-19 : potential mechanisms of disease

© The Author(s) (2021). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain..

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection and is associated with both acute and chronic disorders affecting the nervous system. Acute neurological disorders affecting patients with COVID-19 range widely from anosmia, stroke, encephalopathy/encephalitis, and seizures to Guillain-Barré syndrome. Chronic neurological sequelae are less well defined although exercise intolerance, dysautonomia, pain, as well as neurocognitive and psychiatric dysfunctions are commonly reported. Molecular analyses of CSF and neuropathological studies highlight both vascular and immunologic perturbations. Low levels of viral RNA have been detected in the brains of few acutely ill individuals. Potential pathogenic mechanisms in the acute phase include coagulopathies with associated cerebral hypoxic-ischaemic injury, blood-brain barrier abnormalities with endotheliopathy and possibly viral neuroinvasion accompanied by neuro-immune responses. Established diagnostic tools are limited by a lack of clearly defined COVID-19 specific neurological syndromes. Future interventions will require delineation of specific neurological syndromes, diagnostic algorithm development and uncovering the underlying disease mechanisms that will guide effective therapies.

Media Type:

Electronic Article

Year of Publication:

2021

Contained In:

Brain : a journal of neurology - Vol. 144, No. 12 (2021), p. 3576-3588

Language:

English

Contributors:

Balcom, Erin F
Nath, Avindra
Power, Christopher

Urls:

Volltext

Keywords: Schlagworte
Notes:

Date Completed 17.01.2022

Date Revised 17.01.2022

published: Print

Citation Status MEDLINE

Copyright: From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Physical Description:

Online-Ressource

doi:

10.1093/brain/awab302

PMID:

34398188

PPN (Catalogue-ID):

NLM330599089